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Sunday, June 14, 2020

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Advertising media plan steps



Advertising media plan steps

Advertising media plan steps

The ad media plan originally follows from the marketing strategy, and the media plan has different types and shapes, that is, it is not typical in all circumstances.
The layout of the media, like most advertising planning cases, is not typical so that each plan includes identical elements and this plan has several steps
The steps are:
-Determine the means of the means
- Determine the target market
 - Choose between different advertising methods
 - The means channels and units
 - Scheduling and timing of the facility

First: the means of the means

The plan of the means, like any aspect of the declaration, begins with setting goals, as precisely as possible to reach later on to measure the results resulting from them. As the means of the medium are often expressed in the following terms: access, frequency, continuity
The following is a definition of these terms:

Access

It is the number of different people who are exposed to a specific advertising medium or program means, at least for once, during a specific period of time. It is a measure of the extent or scope of the medium in which the medium combines the needs to purchase advertising space in it.

Frequency

It is the number of times during a certain time period that potential viewers were exposed to the advertising message ,in other words, the frequency is the number of times those viewers viewed a program.
What is important for us to know in the first place is the average frequency that can be calculated from the following equation:

Frequency rate = 

Total Snapshot (total number of times the program was seen(

----------------------------------------------------------------------------


                    
The number of people exposed to a specific advertising medium      

Therefore, frequency is a measure of the intensity of the advertisement medium, in the light of which the needs are determined to purchase ad space.

Continuity

It means how advertisement is scheduled during the planning period; They refer to the times when ads are published or broadcast on the medium.
For example, the advertiser may decide to allocate 30% of the budget allocated to the means for the first month during the stage of introducing a new commodity, for example, then reduce the percentage to 20% for each month from the following two months, then decide not to advertise for six months, and leave 10% for each month of The last months of a year
It should be noted with regard to the goals that the official of the advertising media plans resort to the aforementioned methods of reaching, repetition  as a type of shorthand to express the goals to be achieved and setting these goals depends on a number of factors, foremost of which are the goals of marketing and advertising, in the case of Introducing a new commodity The goal of advertising may be to achieve the highest level of awareness of the commodity by the largest possible number of potential consumers.
Against this objective, the desired goal of the advertising medium is to achieve the highest level of access to a moderate level of frequency

Second: Defining the target market:

Defining the target market is part of the advertising media plan. The plan mainly looks to match or match specific or drawn markets with the advertising medium.
Under consideration or study. The principle that governs the effective use of space and advertising time, is keeping pace or matching the markets with the advertising medium
Better alignment prevents money being wasted by delivering advertising messages to the audience that you want to deliver messages to, and not to other audiences that are not meant by these advertising media.
The advertiser must make sure that the target market has been identified in a way that allows or enables the achievement of conformity and conformity between it and the advertising media that will deliver the required advertising messages.
The target market must be defined in light of several demographic, socioeconomic and logical criteria in the context of the commodity uses, This is because advertising means often provide advertisers with information about their audiences in light of these standards and in case more than one market is identified.

Third: Choosing between different advertising methods:

The plan for an advertising medium , requires the selection of specific types of advertising means such as: newspapers, magazines, broadcasting, etc., as well as requiring the determination of advertising allocations for each medium, and the determination or determination by any means is made in light of a number of objective factors
Among the objective factors we mention
1-Keeping up with our matching the type of advertising medium with the target market. Is there a specific advertising medium, but not others, that are able to communicate the advertising message better or is it more effective.
2- Matching the type of medium with the stated objectives.
3- Competencies and control of various advertising means and the costs involved in reaching a specific type of potential consumer through a specific advertising medium.
4 - Effect of competition Is it better to avoid the advertising methods using by competitors?

Fourth: Channels and units of the advertising medium:

Every advertising medium has channels through which the advertising message is conveyed and delivered to the target market, and therefore the decision to choose the method should be followed by the decision to choose the channel or the domain specified in that medium
Television is an advertising medium and its channels and channels are numerous (morning broadcasts, local television broadcasts, .... Newspapers are also popular newspapers, political newspapers.
And television has another advantage that attracts the attention of advertisers, and it is related to the various programs that it displays. The advertiser may decide to choose a specific field to display his ads during a specific program that is broadly popular, for example.

Fifth: scheduling and timing of the advertising medium:

After studying the advertising means and the adequacy of them with the target audience, and identifying the different alternatives to the size, length and location of the advertisement and the rate of coverage and frequency between the different advertising means, their domains and units.
And compare all of that with the cost of each medium, after all these steps comes the last and important step: choosing the appropriate time to implement the declaration and scheduling it in a manner that is appropriate to the nature of the commodity and the target audience.



Monday, June 8, 2020

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The impact of advertising on consumer behavior


 The impact of advertising on consumer behaviorThe impact of advertising on consumer behavior


The study of consumer behavior is an important topic that has increasing importance at the level of the individual, institutions and society as a whole, and the subject of consumer behavior is taking shape and centered as an existing and independent knowledge field, as it has principles, origins, concepts and research methodology within the science of marketing that
It holds a prominent position in most institutions and companies of all kinds This is because of the role it plays in accomplishing some jobs and businesses, especially in strategic decision-making.
Thanks to marketing and studies carried out by marketing men, whether they are immediate or future on the elements of the marketing mix, decision-makers in the organization can take appropriate and appropriate decisions by which the largest possible number of consumers can be brought in, then study their behavior to satisfy
Their needs and desires or changed to increase profitability that the organization seeks to achieve.
It also reflects the study of consumer behavior in an attempt to show the effect of each element of the promotional mix on the purchasing decisions of consumers, and among the most important of these influences
We find advertising, which is one of the main activities in the field of marketing goods and services to many institutions. It depends on him to achieve communication goals between the parties for many institutions.
The success of advertising in influencing consumer behavior depends mainly on the appropriate advertising means, as choosing the appropriate advertising medium plays the primary role in the success of the advertising means and achieving the specified goals, as it represents a link between the sender
Advertiser and recipient consumer.
The adaptation of marketers to the changing environment, especially with regard to consumers, technology and advertising means the latest effects and changes in the demographic characteristics of consumers, their lifestyle, their purchase and shopping, as well as the way they use advertising methods; As the latter has also become a means of influencing trends by providing informational, informative, or persuasive advertising messages, it also represents a way to arrange
Priorities of interests of recipients and consumers through the introduction of new products and the announced consumer patterns, and for moving them from the periphery of consumer interest to the focus of its attention.

Advertising

 By a non-personal means, we mean evaluating ideas and promoting goods and services by a known body for a paid fee.
consumer's behaviour:
This is the behavior highlighted by the consumer in the search for buying or using goods, services, ideas or experiences that are expected to satisfy his desires or needs, according to the available purchasing capabilities.
Advertising methods:
It is the tool used to transfer the advertising message from its sender, the advertiser to its recipient and the consumer
Advertising is primarily based on advertising media. In order to achieve the communication through which the institution can reach the target audience.
The selection of the appropriate advertising media plays the primary role in the success of the advertising media and the achievement of the specified goals, as it represents a link between the sender and the target
And since there are many advertising methods, the process of selecting the most appropriate method that can be used has become difficult and complicated, especially in light of the various changes affecting its selection.

Advertising media concept:

Advertising means are possible, as advertising is an economically acceptable process. Or in other words, without them, the return from the advertisement would not justify the expense. And since advertising is usually aimed at large audiences, it should rely on widespread advertising
Advertising means the channel and tool or medium used to transmit the advertising message from its sender and the advertiser to its recipient, which is the consumer or recipient
 Advertising is a broad communication process between the advertiser and the beneficiary, and is the most appropriate alternative for personal contact with a large audience distributed over large geographical areas. It guarantees, to a reasonable degree, comprehensive and large coverage that is difficult for the personal communication process to reach, in addition to its high costs
This medium may be a sophisticated device, machine, or technological medium, and it may also be a simple, direct, or a suggestive thing in communicating the advertising message to the advertiser.
Television, for example, or radio, are two of the most advanced technological methods of conveying the advertising message
But exhibitions or gifts are considered suggestive advertising methods in communicating what the advertiser wants to say to the intended audience and with different qualitative features of these means, the persuasive ability of each varies,
The differences between them in terms of tactics of delivering messages make them a determining factor in the extent of acceptance or demand for the persuasive significance of advertising means. Advertising methods have evolved with the development of media and communication technology; This led to the development of the forms and contents of the advertisement, where it gained with the emergence and spread of radio and television, an enormous position. The Internet and the electronic press came to open to the advertised new horizons in terms of design, spread and influence.
Factors affecting the choice of the ad medium:
There are a number of factors that can influence the choice of your ad
First: Requirements for using a creative advertising strategy:
The integrity of both the advertising message and the medium is essential to the success and effectiveness of the advertising activity. It does not make sense to have a separation between the strategy used in designing and editing the technical aspects of the advertisement and the means by which this advertisement will be carried out to the target audience.
Advertising requirements that are technically dependent on creativity and creation may lead to the exclusion or preference of some available advertising methods
Magazines, for example, are considered one of the advertising means capable of publishing ads with high technical and impact technologies through embodiment of the commodity or advertising message, using colors, graphics, graphs, etc.

He managed to get a good share of the advertisement, especially if the sound is essential in the advertising message, because radio or television are among the best advertising means
The product or service in question may also affect the type of advertising media that can be used, such as cigarette advertising. This announcement excludes by law the possibility of using the means of television or radio.
Also, the personality of the product may impose a certain type of advertising means; For example, advertising a high-priced women's perfume may be more effective with videos if compared to television. This is due to the basic fact that the consumer usually links the product about him and the medium that carries the advertisement
Finally, the requirements of the advertising message itself may affect the type of medium that can be chosen. For example, advertising a car in which the advertising message focuses on the car’s ability to move from one speed to another, or the ability to maneuver between other cars, it naturally forces the advertiser to choose the advertising medium that can maximize the impact of the message on the consumer and here is the TV or An effective advertising film

Second: Reaching the appropriate and targeted audience

The main focus of the decision to choose advertising means is choosing the means by which we can reach the target audience for advertising with the lowest cost lost
This feature is based on the ability of the advertising medium to reach:
- a specific geographical area, such as a city, a province or a region: local newspapers are used exclusively as a means of advertising; Because it only wants to cover the local market.
- Specific layers of people who have common characteristics, for example, if the advertiser's goal is to reach the audience of housewives, he should publish his ads in the advertising means that magazines use: Women’s Magazine, Shopping..etc.
Third: The requirements of access and repetition:
After arriving at the decision on the means to deal with the target audience for the advertisement, it must decide the rate of access to these consumers, and the frequency of the advertisement message for that audience. Of course, this affects the planning of schedules for the use of advertising
There is a scale that combines both access and frequency considerations, which is called the product of arrival and repetition together, it is called the gross ranking points GRP. This scale is used to measure the advertising weight caused by the advertising medium.
Fourth: Competition considerations:
Competition plays a major role in influencing the decision to choose the advertising medium. When the competition is intense, the advertiser may aim to participate with competitors for the consumer's mind, and this particular goal appears when the market is stable and there are a number of competitors who offer similar goods. The main reason behind this goal is that the institution’s market share depends on the advertising share on the consumer's mind, in which case the advertiser has to analyze its shares and those of competitors in the market, its share in advertising spending from total spending, and its share in advertising messages That reach the consumer's mind
Fifth: Cost Considerations:
Cost is an important criterion for choosing an advertising medium. In many cases, the costs resulting from choosing the best means for the organization are considered, so it chooses another means of advertising and converts it to the most appropriate means in order to comply with its financial capacity for advertising.
The cost includes two important aspects
A- Absolute cost: It is the simple concept that it is the price of the purchase or the space in a specific advertising medium.
B - Relative cost: It is a comparative cost: It is the cost distributed or related to the audience size of the advertising medium or its target.
Of course, there is an imperative to examine the quality of each audience, as well as its quantity, with a view to knowing every way to obtain the required response from the total audience received.
Sixth: Distribution requirements:
The geography of distribution and solicitation of merchants who resell goods after purchasing brokers is a consideration to be taken into account when choosing an ad medium.
The geography of distribution refers to all distributions of the goods and services that are the subject of the announcement; Of course, the advertiser may not use national newspapers if the good or service is distributed in very limited markets. In this case, you can use either a local newspaper or a local radio.
Or even a local TV station; Because this complicates more economical than the use of the national method.
Likewise, a successful product distribution process may require that distributors advertise themselves in some advertising medium provided that the producing company pays a portion of the advertising cost, in which case the advertising medium is necessarily local.Fourth: Competition considerations:
Competition plays a major role in influencing the decision to choose the advertising medium. When the competition is intense, the advertiser may aim to participate with competitors for the consumer's mind, and this particular goal appears when the market is stable and there are a number of competitors who offer similar goods. The main reason behind this goal is that the institution’s market share depends on the advertising share on the consumer's mind, in which case the advertiser has to analyze its shares and those of competitors in the market, its share in advertising spending from total spending, and its share in advertising messages That reach the consumer's mind
Fifth: Cost Considerations:
Cost is an important criterion for choosing an advertising medium. In many cases, the costs resulting from choosing the best means for the organization are considered, so it chooses another means of advertising and converts it to the most appropriate means in order to comply with its financial capacity for advertising.
The cost includes two important aspects
A- Absolute cost: It is the simple concept that it is the price of the purchase or the space in a specific advertising medium.
B - Relative cost: It is a comparative cost: It is the cost distributed or related to the audience size of the advertising medium or its target.
Of course, there is an imperative to examine the quality of each audience, as well as its quantity, with a view to knowing every way to obtain the required response from the total audience received.

Sixth: Distribution requirements:

The geography of distribution and solicitation of merchants who resell goods after purchasing brokers is a consideration to be taken into account when choosing an ad medium.
The geography of distribution refers to all distributions of the goods and services that are the subject of the announcement; Of course, the advertiser may not use national newspapers if the good or service is distributed in very limited markets. In this case, you can use either a local newspaper or a local radio.
Or even a local TV station; Because this complicates more economical than the use of the national method.
Likewise, a successful product distribution process may require that distributors advertise themselves in some advertising medium, provided that the producing company pays a portion of the advertising cost, in which case the advertising medium is necessarily local.



Thursday, May 7, 2020

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Advertising


Advertising

Advertising

Advertising is one of the primary functions that the organization depends on in introducing customers to producers and motivating them to buy, in addition to other promotional elements of personal selling and motivating sales, and advertising has many types that differ according to the criteria used
When classifying and dividing the advertisement from a geographical and economic criterion, in order to achieve the advertised effectively and effectively, the means of advertising must be chosen
Suitable for advertising, which can reach the target audience at the lowest cost, and these are among the print, audio and audio media,
Attention has been linked to advertising activity, realizing its importance in the sales promotion process, then increasing sales towards using the scientific method in making advertising decisions and caring for planning and designing the advertising campaign and evaluating it so that the ad can achieve its goals.
In order for the advertisement to perform its required role, it must affect the consumer’s consumer behavior, especially since this behavior differs from person to person. The job of the advertiser is to know the factors that influence this behavior so that it can attract a large number of consumers.

Advertising represents marketing activities in the field of commodity marketing and disposal of services and it is one of the most important types of economic activity as it is the main source of income for many projects such as the role of various press media and publishing agencies, specialized advertising agencies... Etc., which are old and modern. It is a means of identifying, promoting, and disposing of goods and services
In fact, the first to know the declaration with its correct content, but orally are the Greeks, then the Romans who developed it into a written declaration as an official record of the declaration that was used to advertise games and equestrian, of course in addition to having some evidence about trade and then derived annual books... The emergence of the record of the chief rabbis in which he recorded internal events, miracles, victories, defeats and concluding contracts, followed by the emergence of the Roman Project Record, which is an official newspaper that transmits to the public all the decisions of the commission and all advertisements of sale and leasing, and that the references are not less than that, and they were used in the field of multiplexing machines, etc. Commercial's share, and sometimes have been writing these tags and use them as well as in non-commercial areas, and found evidence of this in Caesar Augustus as a sign with the bulls drawn twice mentioned by the historian Sotyon.
This was what was in ancient times, but in the Middle Ages, the advertisement was developed by the professional organizations that issued its main list of unions, and thus the medieval ad preserved the forms they were in antiquity, such as recalling and displaying goods on the roads and signs placed on Front shops and shops.
But what we can confirm is the emergence of a fundamental shift in advertising in the seventeenth century, as the primitive art of advertising disappeared and was replaced by other more advanced forms due to developments and transformations in economic conditions in Europe. For example, in Paris, TeoFrast Renault created an office called 1630, followed by the publication of the newspaper "La Gert de France" in 1631, after which the prints gradually evolved and the inventions emerged, accompanied by the appearance of the poster.

Advertising definition:

There is no specific definition for the ad. There are a number of definitions, including:
The definition of the Great French Encyclopedia, which defines the advertisement as: "the set of means used to acquaint the public with a commercial or industrial facility or to persuade it to the features of its products and entice it to obtain it."
The following is stated in a book on the art of selling and advertising: Advertising is the paid means to create a state of psychological satisfaction with the public for the purpose of selling or helping to sell a specific good or service or winning the public’s consent to accept a certain idea.
Advertising in this concept means the link between the effort made by the product to produce a new or excellent, good and informing the consumer of the benefits and benefits of the good and the commodity that the consumer benefits from for the money he pays and has the same feeling of service
Advertising is an attempt to win the confidence of a consumer or a customer, a business that attracts the attention of the public by filing an advertising lawsuit that finally achieves complete persuasion by the buyer.
The importance of the good or service and its usefulness to it, and when buying it, will achieve the most satisfaction with the human needs and the purchasing needs that represent the product with the largest amount of sales.

No economic system of any kind can dispense with advertising and the services provided by advertising messages in all fields, especially in the field of promoting and activating services and products.

The economic and social importance of advertising

Lack of real understanding and awareness of the importance of advertising from an economic and social point of view raises doubts about the function of advertising, so some believe that advertising is nothing but extravagance and extravagance, and does not contribute to national income because it tries to push the consumer public to change their purchasing habits, and divert the public from the consumption of a commodity It carries a certain trade name, to the consumption of a similar commodity and carries a different trade name, and thus this shift in consumption does not result in any increase in the total volume of production.
This belief is based on a false perception, as the market is in a state of continuous growth depending on the growth in the population, and since advertising works to create and stimulate demand, in turn, leads to an increase in production of goods and services and thus an increase in national income, this is on the one hand
On the other hand, the increase in production results in a decrease in the cost of one unit due to the distribution of the fixed cost of the largest possible number of units produced within the energy
Specific productivity, not to mention the role of advertising in creating intense competition between producers in order to work to improve the quality of production, so that each of them seeks to reach the state of excellence required to achieve the largest possible amount of sales.
The advertisement also works to develop the standard of living for the consumer audience by promoting new goods that are invading the markets for the first time, as well as for goods that are undergoing continuous development that require reporting to the consumer audience, and some direct doubts about the authenticity of advertising messages on the basis that the advertisement leads to deceiving the public because advertisers They exaggerate the importance of the goods announced for sale and try to create imaginary differences that mislead the masses by presenting temptations that are of great importance to the buyer in making the purchase decision, especially when making a comparison between alternative goods and competition.

There is no doubt about the authenticity of advertising messages in our contemporary lives, as mass advertising methods from newspapers, radio and television were subject to the rules and principles of ethics for advertising behavior, professional ethics that advertisers and advertising designers take when drafting the advertising message, in addition to the role of public oversight in exposing misinformation and deception,
Also, the means of communication are not willing to sacrifice their reputation. Some imagine that the middle classes with limited purchasing power, which constitute the majority in societies, are pushed under the pressure of advertising to imitate the rich classes in society by purchasing goods that they can only cover their costs by entering into financial obligations that strain their budgets, such as obtaining loans or buying in installments.

The motives for buying differ among consumers, it may be mental and may be emotional, but the nature of the human spirit behaves more than the underlying instinct more than the inspired mind and logic, for example the individual prefers to buy a Mercedes car not only a means of transportation from one place to another, but rather as a form of social superiority Therefore, this behavior cannot be blamed in advertising, but on the nature of the human soul itself.

Advertising goals.

In fact, there are some problems that a marketing man encounters when defining the goals of the advertising message, and it is one of the means of communication between the company and consumers. Communication goals should define the content of the advertising message, which is usually called "purchase sentence or sentence," as well, the final results behind the communication

It must be determined precisely, and this requires the company to do the following:

-1 Determine in advance the current market situation in terms of the degree of individuals knowing the commodity, the trend towards the commodity, or behavior towards the commodity.
-2 Determine the degree of change required to be achieved in the degree of knowledge, direction or behavior.
-3 Defining the standards for measuring the company's follow-up to the degree of achieving its goals.
The goals of the advertisement are:
Changing the tendencies, direction, and behavior of potential consumers, meaning that advertising will change consumer behavior to purchase a commodity that he is not convinced to buy if there is no advertisement, and this is done through the following methods:
- By providing data and information about the commodity.
- Confirmation of the advertisement is a pledge or guarantee of the quality of the goods or services and the correctness of their information stated in the advertisement message, and this is what matters to the consumer.
- Work to change the desires by highlighting the benefits and benefits of the consumer as a result of buying and using the commodity
- Changing consumers ’preference for different brands,  shifting their preferences from a competing brand to the brand being advertised.
Creating demand for a specific commodity in the initial stage, then working to fulfill it in the next stage.
- Attempting to postpone the continuous decline in the demand structure through a set of selling temptations to stop this gradual deterioration.
- Opening new horizons for markets that did not exist before directing advertising campaigns, then providing the opportunity for the announced project to market goods or services and then maximizing its relative market share.


Create a sense of loyalty and loyalty between goods and services and their consumers by introducing consumers to information and data related to these goods or services that affect purchasing decisions.
- Attempting to face competition, as many advertising campaigns aim to compensate for the impact on the project's market share resulting from competing ads, which means that if the ad is designed to attract new consumers who have not used the commodity before, many ads are trying to attract consumers to switch from Trademark to another or from one commodity to another.
- Product usage increases, as some ads try to attract consumers to use the product in a way that increases its total consumption, for example:
Use toothpaste three times a day, or drink soft drinks instead of traditional drinks
- Increasing the turnover rates of the advertised goods or services by attracting attention, attracting attention, and using different methods to send consumers the desire to try to convince them of a marketed commodity to ensure their satisfactory response and urge them to obtain these goods from the vast amount of goods offered in the market. There is no doubt that creating ads mean this function to increase the number of sales and thus increase the profitability and continuity of the advertised project and its commodity and service structure in the market.
- Increase sales in the low demand season, as most products have a natural purchase or use period, and to overcome this large number of ads, try to increase demand throughout the year.
Create a positive image of the project. Although the immediate goal is not to sell a particular product, but to win the admiration of the consumer audience for the project on the basis that it is a national project working for the public interest or in the service of the national economy, these two goals are related to each other.
It can be said that advertising has long-term goals through which it contributes to achieving sales, increasing the company's market share, maximizing its profitability, and other short-term goals related to improving the company's relative position in certain aspects.
Advertising is one of the elements of the promotional mix as a collective means of communicating information in order to convince buyers of the advertised goods or services, thus maximizing the profits achieved.
Advertising, if there are multiple definitions, it is an impersonal means of communication that is implemented through public means of communication, such as radio, television, newspapers, fields, and others.
Advertising is a complex process, given the large number of advertisers aiming to reach a large number of consumers, and this variation in the advertising process will result in several types of ads.
Ad study requires clear, specific, and closely related goals of an organization. On the other hand, planning and organizational rules must be established for effectiveness. Advertising campaign must be planned and designed, it is necessary to know the elements of the ad and the exact design requirements
Then comes the stage of evaluating the advertising campaign to find out how successful the advertising activity is in achieving the desired goals, and to ensure the effectiveness of the advertisement, the latter must affect the consumer behavior, as it provides information to the consumer and changes his desires and preferences for different brands, where the advertisement can increase the volume of demand for products or Advertised services



Saturday, May 2, 2020

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Pricing and distribution policies

Pricing policies
Pricing and distribution policies
The pricing policy is represented in a set of principles and directions used by the marketing department when determining the price of the product so that the price is an exciting and attractive source and an element of profit.

 The pricing policy followed by marketers and producers is extremely important and on this basis the marketer can adopt a high or low price policy or the approved price By competing institutions.

-1 Leading pricing policy

It can take many forms: high price, low price, market price. The choice of one of these policies depends on a number of factors, including market conditions, the quality and nature of the commodity and its life cycle, The high price policy takes two forms: penetration policy and market dumping policy.

In the policy of penetrating the market:

 A low price is determined at the stage of product delivery and then it is gradually raised by improving the quality and distribution methods. Until the establishment follows this method, the price effect on the volume of demand should be low and the product meets its necessary need in addition to the absence of alternative goods that meet the same need.

As for the policy of dumping the market:

 The product is launched at a high price from the beginning, with an important condition is high quality and the existence of a great demand to cover costs and achieve profit margin within a short period of time.
The low price policy is taken in the absence of the previous conditions or as a result of certain conditions, and there is a set of factors that make the institution take this policy the most important
The presence of alternative goods of competitors
- New competitor entry
- Increase the volume of sales and invest non-invested production capacity of the institution
 The success of this policy at the stage of product delivery allows for a large market share to be gained and thus the price can be raised in the later stages of the product life cycle if market conditions permit.

2 -Professional price policy

It helps people who have great skill or experience in a specific field to determine the price of products according to their nature, time and period of performance as is the case with demand

3- Promotion Price Policy

To attract a large number of customers, the price is reduced even less than the cost, sometimes by institutions with simple and low-demand products. In addition, some retail stores reduce the price on some occasions to attract a large number of customers.

4- Psychological price policy

This policy is based on the use of consumer emotions and showing them to customers for purchase and is often used by retail stores as using a fractional or regular price,  the customer’s usual price

5- Price policy, according to customer groups

This policy is based on setting a set of prices that correspond to different groups of customers, each of which has special characteristics. This policy does not succeed unless the overall market is indivisible.

6- Price policy using the experience curve

The institution can apply this policy in the case of accumulating its production experience and its capabilities to reduce the cost of production and in this case the institution uses its experience curve by fixing prices at a low level, so that the competitor with a similar high cost cannot.

7- Geographical price policy

This method depends on offering products at different prices, according to the different geographical regions in which customers are present. In addition, it takes into account the place of delivery of the goods and each situation a special price situation, and from it it can be said that the appropriate pricing policy developed carefully helps the organization in the success of its marketing strategy and the price is According to the process of taking into account the cost of distribution, there are many factors that contribute to determining distribution outlets including:

Item Nature:

The characteristics and nature of the commodity control the choice of the required distribution outlets. Generally, perishable consumer goods and commodities that need specialized technical ingredients tend to have shorter distribution outlets than other commodities, and in many cases direct distribution is preferred in contrast to the consumer and low value consumer goods. Thanks to the use of a large number of intermediaries to reach the final consumers.

Market Nature:

In the event that the market is concentrated and the company's sales are concentrated in a limited number of customers, it is preferable to follow direct distribution or short distribution outlets, unlike in the case of the geographically dispersed market in distant regions, with a large number of intermediaries used to reach those areas.

Competitors:

In order for most companies to face intense competition, and to ensure that their products are displayed in the same areas where competitors offer their products and marketing men, it is necessary to take into account the distribution outlets that competitors follow, and this is especially found among the leading companies and subsidiaries.

Financial capabilities:

The greater the material capabilities of the company and the greater its size with its production of a variety of commodities, the more it tends to use more than one method for direct or indirect distribution or establish a specialized distribution facility to distribute its products.

Economic and environmental changes:

Economic changes play an important role in determining the distribution outlets used and creating new distribution outlets. The emergence of large-size refrigerators, both in distribution outlets and on cars, has helped many in distributing many perishable goods and frozen food. On the other hand, technological developments, for example, in the field of banking, have enabled From the use of automated machines in the distribution of banking services, insurance services and so on.

Distribution Policies:

distribution policies

Any organization that wishes to distribute its products on the market uses distribution brokers and chooses one of the following policies:

A- Intensive Distribution:

Intensive distribution affects products that are widely known in the market or are of frequent purchase in small quantities or a somewhat lower price in addition to that they do not require specialized knowledge to sell them and do not require after-sales services or a stock for spare parts.

B- Optional Distribution:

 Optional distribution is used when the supplier supplies only some merchants who choose according to the quality criteria size, qualifications, services available to customers.

Some producers specify the number of intermediaries who wish to distribute the commodity and the products that require optional distribution characterized by many characteristics, including specialized knowledge of sales and after-sales services, specialized and unit price is relatively high and also requires the necessity of the availability of spare parts stores at retailers.

C- The only distribution:

 It means that there is only one agent who distributes the commodity in his region, which also means that this distributor does not distribute competitors ’goods and the only distribution is for products that have attractive value and require a lot of specialized knowledge for sale and service and they have“ often and not always ”a high selling price, and requires formation Distribution users pay the formation of sale, maintenance, and repair, in addition to the need for long and retail efforts before reaching the sale.

The distribution strategy plays an important role in knowing the market formation that the corporation wants to reach, and if the existing distributive outlets cannot reach the corporation for the intended market, the corporation must review its marketing strategy.

 The distribution strategy can also take the payment strategy, by emphasizing the internal distribution through the distribution outlets, either through the attraction strategy, the organization bypasses all intermediaries and focuses its efforts directly to consumers.

Finally, it can be said that the policy of successful pricing and distribution serves both consumers and suppliers, especially if the speed required to deliver the commodity to the market and the best method of distribution is achieved is not the shortest path or the shortest distance between the product and the consumer, but there are considerations
Other and important factors that affect the choice of this path, the most important of which are: time, cost, risk.

There are many functions that must be carried out within the pricing and distribution channels: purchasing, selling, transport, storage, profiling, financing, bearing the risks and collecting marketing information, and we often find brokers distributing or They divide these different functions among themselves in order to achieve maximum efficiency in a specific way.



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