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Marketing Activity


Marketing Activity

Marketing Activity

In this regard, Kotler points out that the first beginning of the emergence or emergence of marketing was in the 17th century. In the 1950's, almost as early as 1950, the Japanese Messewi family established the first store or store in Tokyo and since that time policies of product design and resource development have emerged.


Darko notes that the West did not know anything about marketing except in the mid-19th century by the Harvest International Company, and Cyrus McCormick was the first to indicate that marketing is the core or center of the main activity but rather the organization, and that the term marketing appeared for the first time as a university course Pennsylvania in the early 20th century was taught under the title "Product Marketing", and in 1910 Butler taught "Marketing Methods" at the University of Wisconsin.


As for business organizations, the first department for marketing and shopping research appeared in the early twentieth century, where Curtis established the Department of Marketing Research in 1911 under the name "Commercial Research", and since 1917 industrial and commercial companies began to realize the importance of marketing activity in its various fields and this interest

continues Until now .


Although marketing activity has been around for a very long time, this activity has changed dramatically over time. Medieval merchants can be imagined promoting their merchandise and working to entice customers to their merchandise, citing its advantages and preparing its benefits, and Chinese merchants were touring the world from For the silk trade, as well as the Arabs on the winter and summer trips, but spontaneously unaware.

Definition of marketing activities:

It is the processes of planning and implementing proposed perceptions, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, products and services in order to complete exchanges that satisfy the goals of individuals as well as organizations. Exchanges or exchanges are the essence of marketing activities, which is the transformation of something of value, whether tangible or intangible, real or symbolic, between two parties in order to satisfy the needs of individuals and organizations that carry out the exchange process, for example: money and goods


Stages of developing marketing activity

 Marketing in its economic sense did not appear so directly, as it developed through four important stages:


(1)-The productive concept stage (production orientation:


The organizations that went through the industrial revolution worked in light of the intellectual productive direction and this until the 1920's and this is because technology control was very weak at the time, and most of the installations were done manually using a huge amount of labor in factories and workshops, where employers perceived productive success in Offering the largest possible quantity of products on the market, and the product relied entirely on this technical taste in designing the product without taking into account the consumer’s taste and need for this product, and this is based on the famous economic hypothesis, saying: “The offer creates its own demand.”

However, this was the reason for making the supply size much larger than the demand size, as the number of consumers shrank, leading to the phenomenon of recession and damage to goods in warehouses.

2- The stage of moving towards a quick profit and a business number:

Because the businessmen who own factories and workshops are capitalists, the main goal of them was to achieve the largest possible percentage of profits by employing the largest possible business number in various legitimate and illegal ways, so the economy of that time was known as the "economy of peace".


This phase lasted from the Second World War to the beginning The 1960s, during which the bourgeois and feudal lords prevailed and interest in investment in the agricultural sector prevailed and financial and legal problems were the main concern of employers.

3- The sales concept stage (orientation towards selling):


Due to the technological development and the possibility of mass production, the institutions have produced quantities that exceed the demand for the product in the market, and therefore the Foundation’s officials have directed efforts towards the disbursement of the product from the warehouses in various ways, as the institutions have focused on advertising and resorting to the use of street vendors “the system of remote selling "After realizing that the absence of the customer despite the existence of the product requires studying the most effective way to sell and review the marketing policy.


The sales concept, with its focus on sales activity, is the opposite of the production concept, which does not give any focus to the sales process, but in any case, the two stages do not give any attention to the needs or desires of the consumer.


4- Marketing concept stage (marketing orientation stage):


The absence of a baseline study of the markets in the previous stage is the main reason behind the bankruptcy of the institutions, as the markets were filled with various products, but the customer could not find what he wanted.


Adam Smith pointed out in his famous book “The Wealth of Nations” that the primary loan for the productive process is the consumer process, so the producer had to determine the causes of the problem by knowing the consumer's desires, his purchasing power and even his culture and religious beliefs, and this is to design the appropriate product at a reasonable price within the given deadlines and choose the distribution channels The occasion, which led to the emergence of specialized institutions in a particular product.


In the 1950's, the marketing concept emerged, which holds that all activities of the organization, including production activities, must focus on the needs of the consumer, and that achieving long-term profit is only achieved through the systematic fulfillment of these needs.