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Marketing environment


Marketing environment

Marketing is the most important key to achieving the goals of the organization and includes defining the needs and desires of the target market and obtaining the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than competitors. We note that the success of marketing is related to the extent of control and the group knows other elements that we can call the "marketing environment", where we distinguish industrial societies with diversity and diversity The activities of industrial, commercial and service organizations therein, along with the main goals that all organizations operating in society seek to achieve

 Providing the consumer with goods and services is considered one of the main functions of any organization or marketing site, and not only is it at this point, but the consumer in which the organization operates is considered the main supplier of inputs to its main operations and activities.

 Raw materials, labor, capital, and other factors of production are only those in which the organization operates or is present.

In other words, both business and consumer organizations are linked to reciprocal and complementary relationships aimed at achieving a goal or a set of goals, and the existence of the survival of either party is a necessary condition for the existence or survival of the other.

Thus, each party influences and is affected by the other, even if the existence of the environment and the consumer precedes the existence of the organization in all circumstances. The consumer environment is a market for the sale of goods and services of the proposed project, and also is the market for the purchase of services of different production factors, the environment in which any project involves

It also provides opportunities for success or failure and defines the plans of the project strategies to achieve its goals. Also, the supply and demand of “market forces” for a particular good or service are in reality only variables or products of an environment that determines the future and survival of the new project or the existing organization.

And the marketer, whether it is an institution or a person, must focus the marketing concepts accurately on this marketing environment. Among these concepts:

Needs and desires:

Human needs and desires are the basic concept of the study of marketing, for a person has many needs that he seeks to satisfy, and these needs include a group of material needs such as food, clothing, warmth and security, and social needs such as belonging, interaction, appreciation, and the individual's needs for knowledge and self-fulfillment.

Of course, the individual seeks to progressively satisfy these needs so that he moves from a certain level of needs after satisfying them to a higher level.

It is noted that the unsatisfied needs may impose on the individual

two basic actions:

- Looking to satisfy the need.

- Try to reduce the level of need.

It is noted that the needs of the individual differ from one society to another according to the level of economic progress within the consuming society.

In relatively underdeveloped societies who seek to reduce the level of needs or try to satisfy them with the available services.

Desires represent an advanced stage of needs, one may wish to move around and prefer a car of a certain type, and then desires are the means that are used to satisfy the need,

Individuals ’desires differ according to culture, civilization and personality. The individual may feel his need for food.

 The American individual may choose a“ hamburger ”to satisfy him, and the consumer prefers.

French patisserie, croissants ... and so on ... Then the marketing man's role is to find and provide the goods and services that satisfy the need, and to find specific preferences for the consumer to acquire and buy company goods instead of competing ones.


In the reality of work, some companies confuse needs and desires. For example, the producer of the game “Atari” believes that the consumer needs the game “Atari,” but in reality he needs entertainment. And the Railways believes that the consumer needs rail transport services, but in reality he needs transport service in general from one place to another and so on.

Therefore, many producers suffer from the so-called marketing myopia, since all their attention is focused on the goods they produce or the service they provide and not on the needs of the consumer, they forget that the products are only the means of every problem of the consumer and satisfy his need, and for this the producers and marketers within Marketing from time to time to study the needs of consumers and introduce new products that satisfy these needs.

Demand and products:

What constitutes the demand for a commodity?

It is noted that individuals have unlimited desires and resources and limited funds, hence the difficult equation appears: the individual must choose the products that provide him with the greatest possible satisfaction within the limits of his financial resources and for this the demand for a commodity is determined by the desire of individuals to acquire it and his purchasing power, and the demand for organizations is determined Within the geographical boundaries, there is a "local, national, and international market" during a specific period of time, and there are several indicators

That helps determine the degree of demand for certain types of products.


If the number of travelers from Egypt, for example, to the countries of the world is about 7 million per year, the amount of poultry consumed is 40,000,000, and the area of ​​cultivated land is 200,000, then this will naturally lead to a demand for meals served in the plane and animal feed that is used to feed poultry, fertilizers and seeds that are used in agriculture.

Successful organizations are the ones that predict the size of the expected demand for their products, as this contributes to determining the appropriate size of production and administrative capacities required, and the presence of human needs and desires and the emergence of demand for them requires the presence of products to satisfy these needs and desires, if an individual feels weary and bored, then he needs For entertainment and that’s why he might decide to buy a "physical good" video or go to a "service" hotel

Hence, these alternatives are available to satisfy a specific need of the consumer, and of course the consumer chooses the product that provides him with the best possible satisfaction from the available products.

It may come to mind that the product is the material commodity that the company produces and markets, but we find that the word product is more comprehensive, it may be a good, service, idea, organization, person, place or anything that is saturated with the need, and some writers go further than This, they look at the product from the point of view of the benefits and services that the consumer gets from using it. For example, the consumer does not buy a car For example, to possess or view, but to satisfy the need for mobility.

Exchanges and Transactions:

As long as there are needs and desires of the individual, and there are products that satisfy these desires, how can the individual obtain them?

There are in fact several ways, the individual may provide it himself by producing or cultivating it, or he may steal it or force someone to provide it to him, or he may beg to obtain it, and finally the individual may decide to obtain it in exchange for something he owns, that is, by exchanging

The exchange is the essence of the marketing process, as there is no marketing in the case of satisfying the needs through self-sufficiency, theft, coercion or gift from others, and the exchange process requires many conditions:

- There should be two parties at least.

- that each party has something of value to the other party.

- That each party has the ability to contact the other party and deliver this thing.

- That each party be absolutely free to accept or reject another offer.


It is noted that the introduction of the previous concept leads to the expansion of the areas of application of the marketing activity to include any exchange process between two parties and not only the traditional concept of application of marketing in the field of consumer and tyrannical goods, as marketing principles and concepts are applied today successfully in the marketing of services, ideas, organizations, people ... etc.

There is marketing for banking, tourism and hotel services, as well as ideas such as the idea of ​​family planning, fighting smoking and fighting the spread of nuclear weapons, and there is special marketing for people like presidential candidates, whether at the state level or different bodies.


Transactions are considered the basic unit of exchange. When the two parties agree on the exchange process, then it can be said that a process has taken place. Therefore, the axis of the transactions is the value obtained by the two parties. This value includes many dimensions, including:

The time of the agreement, the location of the agreement, and the counterparty the other marketer gets ... There are two types of transactions:

Financial transactions:

This is what the consumer pays in return for obtaining a specific good or service in the form of monetary units, and interest in marketing transactions was limited in the past to financial transactions, since marketing has been associated with consumer goods and then industrial goods And profit-oriented services.


Non-financial transactions

The candidate presents his program in exchange for the electoral vote, social and religious organizations receive in return participation from members, and the marketer of ideas gets in return in exchange for support for the idea, all of which are considered the consideration that the consumer pays in the exchange process and is by nature non-financial transactions.

To ensure an effective and successful exchange, the marketer must analyze the expectations of each party in the exchange process, and this is called a buyer's wish list.


The concept of exchange is ultimately based on the concept of the market, and the market consists of all potential consumers who have a specific need or desire and who are willing and able to complete the exchange process to satisfy this need or desire.

It is noted that the size of the market depends on the number of potential consumers and their purchasing power and their willingness to provide these resources to obtain the desire or need, and there were multiple views of the market, traditionally the market was seen as the place where buyers and sellers meet and the ownership of the commodity is transferred.

As for the economists, they used the word market to refer to the group of buyers and sellers who deal in a commodity or group of commodities, and it is determined by the forces of supply and demand (housing market, wheat market, etc.). On the other hand, marketers consider that the sellers

Representing industry and buyers. Sellers provide goods and services. Buyers use communications to achieve their goals. Buyers provide financial compensation and information.

There are many foundations on which to base the market, including:

Needs markets: an example of a market for those looking to be entertained.

Demographic markets: an example of a youth market

Geographical markets: the example of the Saudi market.

Commodity markets: the watch market.